Competence Area:

Regulation and funding of passenger transport

In parallel with the increased use of market mechanisms and an emphasis on organizational autonomy and professional independence, society’s governance ambitions are increasing. The traditional hierarchical governance has gained a greater element of horizontal governance, for example through contracts with state-owned companies. The creation of state-owned companies has led to politicians taking on a new role as owner and purchaser.

In addition, there is a belief that a specialized organization will increase efficiency and returns. Increased fragmentation in terms of establishing new entities may however complicate governance through the creation of new demands for transparency and control. Overall, these trends indicate that there is a need for knowledge on new governance instruments, or on how existing governance instruments can be arranged in new ways.

TØI provides research related to how competitive tendering of transport markets are formed, and why the design varies between sectors and countries. We also study changes in structural conditions - reforms, changing organizational structures and changing market structures.

TØI also conducts analyses of performance and effects, including the effects on cost efficiency, environment, quality of service, safety and universal design. Performance studies includes both consequences of the introduction of competition and broader studies of government reforms.

New technology and changing market structures, including the new sharing economy, the introduction of Über, and autonomous vehicles, raises new regulatory issues.

We study how public transport services are funded, and what alternative forms of financing are available; For example, user fees, cost-sharing, Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and the Land Value Capture. We analyze how and why the various actors decide to organize and finance services differently, and what the effects are.


Gaustadalléen 21
0349 Oslo, Norway

Phone: +47 22 57 38 00