These cities are all facing similar problems in terms of rapid population growth, traffic congestion, and increasing GHG emissions and serious air pollution rates. Due to the sheer size of these cities, they can be expected to face enormous transport, environmental and climate related challenges as their populations increase and gradually become more motorized due to economic development.
Moreover, such large cities with large and complex transport systems are also especially vulnerable in terms of transport infrastructure damage and breakdowns due to future climate change related weather events.
is one of the world’s largest cities and growing rapidly. It is the largest Indian city in terms of area and the densest (11014 POP/sq. km). It has one the few metro-rail systems in the country and a relatively good road infrastructure. Delhi is the national capital with a relatively high car ownership ratio and a higher average income than the rest of India.
India’s commercial capital and inhabits 1% of total Indian population. However, it produces 17% of Indian GDP. Mumbai contributes to 25% of industrial output and 70% of capital transactions to India’s economy in 2009. Total passenger kilometres (PKM) travelled in 2005 were 37.55 billion (excluding rail) out of which 82% were by public transport.
is a major service sector city. It is a good example of rapid urbanization. The sharp rise in the city’s growth has transformed the character of the city and has put tremendous stress on its transport infrastructure, which has started to succumb to the twin pressures of increasing demand and inadequate resources. Bangalore also exhibits one of the highest rich-poor income divides in India, which raises added concerns surrounding the equitability of mobility.