|Authors:||Erik Figenbaum, Paal Brevik Wangsness|
|ISBN (digital version):||978-82-480-1910-7|
Full report, Norwegian only
The BEV (battery electric vehicle) market and the surrounding ecosystem have had a formidable growth in the last decade, but the market for BEV charging (excluding home charging) is characterized by low profitability and poor user experiences. In this report, we find that each actor can have promising and good business models for their activities, but also that the sum of the actors' activities created an overall system that is not very user-friendly. Users need up to 20 apps and encounter 13 different payment systems when accessing the charging infrastructure. The most common form of payment, bank cards is only available in a few places. A main challenge is that some big players do not support roaming, that could make charging easier across players. They prefer to further develop an exclusive offer for their customers and believe that it provides better earnings. Smaller players see roaming as an opportunity to increase the use of the chargers. The scenarios show that the system can improve through regulation, consolidation, increased OEM control, networks that integrate chargers to a complete offering or if tech-giants comes in.