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Increased use of walking and cycling to school is a goal for transport-, health and environmental policy in many countries. Physical activity is good for children's development, health and learning. Authorities and organisations have carried through many campaigns to increase the share of active transport. But the national goal of 80% walking or cycling to school is not fulfilled. The Public Roads Administration therefore wanted a review on the effects of campaigns. A main impression is the striking absence of systematic evaluations. From the material at hand, it seems that campaigns function best when they are linked to physical measures, schools get resources and they are repeated. Campaigns for active school transport have many participants, can establish local engagement, set focus on the problem and contribute to adjustments for walking and cycling, thus giving long term effects in favour of better health and environment.