|Authors:||Harald Aas, Lasse Fridstrøm, Tormod W Haug, Britt Ann K Høiskar, Ingrid Sundvor|
|ISBN (digital version):||978-82-480-1684-7|
In its judgment of 2 October 2015, the EFTA Court held that Norway had failed to fulfil its obligations under Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. To combat high NO2 pollution levels in Oslo, which occur under unfavourable atmospheric conditions, several short notice, temporary measures have been considered, including low emission zones and augmented cordon toll rates for diesel vehicles. This report focuses on free public transport, as offered around the clock, or in off-peak periods only. The former of these two turns out to be almost prohibitively expensive, since capacity utilization is already near 100 per cent during the rush hours. It leads to only small reductions in NOx emissions and in NO2 concentration levels.