Although the risk of being involved in a traffic accident is the same for motorcyclists as compared to other road users, the risk of a motorcyclist being injured in an accident is much higher. On basis of the high injury risk for motorcyclists, is seems most relevant to focus on countermeasures to prevent crashes. It is, however, unrealistic to assume that all motorcycle accidents can be avoided. As a consequence, countermeasures aimed at reducing injury severity are also needed. Different countermeasures of these types are reviewed in the report. There is no evidence showing that voluntary training programs reduces the accident risk, but compulsory licensing programs seems to give a small reduction in accident risk. There is clear evidence for a reduction in injury severity when using protective clothing and a helmet. There is reason to belive that ABS-brakes on motorcycles both will prevent accidents and reduce injury severity. There is no evidence for a relationship between accident risk and motorcycle engine size/effect. However, being unfamiliar or inexperienced with the motorcycle in question seems to increase the risk of being involved in an accident.Studies demonstrate that increased motorcycle/motorcyclist conspicuity (e.g. daytime running lights) reduces the risk of collision with another vehicle. Impact with crash barriers can result in severe injuries for motorcyclists, and there are today several means for improving such barriers/fences.